The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, popularly known as Mormons, had grown in 1908 to some 350,000 U.S. members, living mostly in Utah and surrounding states. The Church had also implemented an aggressive policy of international missionary work in Canada, Europe and Polynesia--often providing incentives for converts to immigrate to Utah. Rumors of persistent polygamy and allegations of Church control of Utah business and politics prompted a U.S. Senate investigation in 1911. At the same time a spate of sensational exposes appeared in national magazines such as McClure's,Cosmopolitan and Collier's. Perhaps the most damaging of these was Alfred Henry Lewis' series titled "The Viper on the Hearth," which "accused the Church of laying plans to subvert the family structure of America and take over the country both politically and economically" (Allen & Leonard 472). Such anti-Mormon propaganda--particularly the rumors of polygamy--no doubt affected Miles' attitude toward the church. However, her attitude toward the practice was based less on its supposed immorality than on her belief that it constituted a primitive social institution which further subjugated women to men.