Miles' irritation with the Blackbird undoubtedly came from first-hand experience during a visit to Miami, Florida, from November 1909-March 1910 (Gaston 63). The Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) dwells primarily in marshes and wetlands. Our Southern Birds moderates the description of its "harsh" voice: "The rich call-note is described as 'kong-que-ree' or 'O ka le.' There is also a fifing chorus which the males sing all together, which, while not musical, makes as springlike a sound as the rippling of Pickering frogs" (137).